API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.

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Technical policy relating to structural behaviour under explosion hazards

Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U. This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of new piping systems on production platforms located offshore. However large masses such as vessels commonly seen on topsides 2f significantly change the equivalent stiffness and mass adopted and therefore aapi corresponding displacements.

Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points Non-linear finite element analysis The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric aip together with the dynamics.

This recommended practice is intended to assist in development of a management program designed to promote safety and environmental protection during the performance of offshore oil and gas and sulphur operations. The failure history of large ocean going vessels is a significant cause of concern in the shipping industry. Generally speaking, guidance for the offshore area is still evolving. Log in to your subscription Username.

Retrofit of barriers usually blast walls to existing installations plays a major part in reducing the risk and achieving ALARP criteria for accidental explosion events. If an installation is one that is in a high risk category which is relying heavily on ductility, this is the only technique which, if the model is extensive enough, can capture the interaction between the structural members and the true ductility of the structural system.

The advantages of adopting this methodology based on SRA approach are deemed to be well-suited for bidding phase, where the time and cost of carrying out detailed risk analysis is not feasible. Nature of threat The potential for an accidental release of a hydrocarbon mixture is ever present on hydrocarbon carrying installations and, if ignited, could lead to a serious incident involving loss of life, loss of the asset and environmental damage.

Abstract Projects with accelerated engineering, procurement, and construction EPC schedules are becoming common in the oil and gas industry with Oil Majors keen on quick and guaranteed returns on investment. Introduction Industrial scale fire, explosion and environmental pollution from the production, refining, and distribution of petroleum remains one of the major concerns impacting human life and environment, incurring business losses and jeopardizing organizational reputation.


The measures for frequency and severity level are normally based on the size of the inventory and complexity of the process, the level of congestion and confinement and the staffing level of the installation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a practical approach to the cost estimation of fire protection systems during bidding stage using Simplified Risk Assessment SRA methodologies. Analysis and Design of Profiled Blast Walls. This can potentially lead to larger gas cloud sizes as they would not be limited by the volume of the module as on a fixed topside.

Proceedings of an International Conference Submersible Technology: It emphasizes the need to train personnel in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and to esta A key area which requires detailed consideration are the structural details which would perform adequately under static loading but become brittle and possibly fail under a dynamic loading consideration.

Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 1: Sheriff’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition. Peer reviewed only Published between: The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.

Health and Safety Executive. Duty holders must demonstrate that structures have sufficient robustness to ensure a low probability of catastrophic failure when subjected to accidental explosions. The most prominent leak scenarios for the study were considered as a part of the simplified approach in lieu of considering exhaustive scenario combinations based on different leak sizes, weather parameters, leak directions, etc.

Fire and Explosion Guidance Part 0: Safety critical elements Structural elements and systems are used in provision of control and barriers for explosions and are likely to be designated safety critical elements. Ageing assessments should confirm that structural arrangements are still appropriate for inventory levels that exist on the installation.

The latest industry based guidance which is currently in use is the API Recommended Practice 2FB for design of offshore facilities against fire and blast loading.

API Standards List

This publication serves as a guide for those who are concerned with the design and construction of new platforms and for the relocation of existing platforms used for the drilling, development, and storage of hyd This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience. HSE aims to reduce work-related death, injury and ill health. Some packages can also potentially capture contact, brittle and ductile behaviour of the structure.

Proceedings of an international conference Diverless and Deepwater Techology: The selection of prominent leak scenarios was based on the good practice followed in the industry supported by the requirements specified within Operator Standards as well. Limiting a potential gas cloud size is an important issue in the design phase as well as keeping the design pressures inherently lower generally through design to minimise the effects of an explosion and fire is a key zpi on an FPSO facility.


Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the GEE JIP project which resulted in the publication of an important handbook. The methodology adopted was to conduct a f2b assessment for a typical bid to arrive at the sound cost estimate for the fire protection systems. Even if confinement is reduced, high levels of congestion can actually create confinement and enhance the explosion experienced by the surrounding plant and structure.

The method relies on a kinematic similarity between the actual and idealised spring mass, which for a beam simply means the velocity and displacement of the spring mass corresponds to a point on the beam which best describes the global behaviour.

A fire and blast information group was subsequently established through which a number of important technical notes have been published.

Ongoing operational safety shall be demonstrated by appropriate design capacity in conjunction with an appropriate integrity management system to ensure degradation is kept within acceptable limits.

In order to focus effort where it is most needed, a risk screening process is usually adopted which classifies installations and modules according to their explosion risk level. Post Piper, several bars of pressure were found to be a real possibility with realistic apl of congestion and confinement.

Examples of evidence Some generic advice on methods that may be used to assess response are: Little consideration ap therefore been given to explosion scenarios on many older fixed structures.

Definition of NFPA – IADC Lexicon

The magnitude of the explosion loads for which the installation is designed should reflect the residual risks to persons on the installation from explosion in line with the ALARP principle.

The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just 2bf blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the response of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation. Robustness of the integrity should be measured against the resilience of the structure to resist these loads with suitable margins to cater for the uncertainties in the load estimation, the modelling schem chosen, and the material properties of the materials used.