El azar y la necesidad (Metatemas) | Jacques Monod | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. Ciencia y filosofía en El Azar y la ita Necesidad y Azar Parménides – Mallarmé. : El Azar Y La Necesidad (Spanish Edition) () by Jacques Monod and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible.
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In his view the biosphere is unpredictable for the same reason that the particular configuration of atoms in a pebble are unpredictable.
In chapter four “Microscopic Cybernetics” the author starts out by repeating the characteristic of extreme specificity of enzymes and the extreme efficiency of the chemical machinery in living organisms. The “error” in the genetic message will be replicated with a high degree of fidelity.
Monod lists and defines azag regulatory patterns.
The author then writes that a primary structure exists in a single or a small number of related states, as is the case with allosteric proteins precisely defined conformational native state under normal physiological conditions. Monod admits he is more interested in animism and will therefore devote more analysis to it. He implies that this genetic component accounts for religion being the base of social structure and the reoccurrence of the same essential form in myths, religion, and philosophy.
In Jacob and Monod proposed the existence of a messenger ribonucleic acid mRNAa substance whose base sequence is complementary to that of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA in the cell. Feedback activation is when the enzyme is activated by a product of degradation of the terminal metabolite. Publicar un comentario Agradeceremos aportes constructivos. According to the in troduction the book’s necesodad was inspired by a line attributed to Democritus, “Everything existing in the universe is the fruit of chance and necessity.
Next would have been the formation of the first macromolecules capable of replication probably through spontaneous base pairing. This remarkable example shows chance as the basis for one of the most precise adaptation phenomena.
He next considers the energetic differences between covalent and non-covalent bonds and how the speed of a reaction is affected by activation energy. Once man extended his domain over the subhuman sphere and dominated his environment the main threat became other men and tribal warfare came to be an necrsidad evolutionary selection factor and this would favor group cohesion.
That is why Mendel’s definition of the gene as the unvarying bearer minod hereditary traits, its chemical identification by Avery confirmed by Hersheyand the monood by Watson and Crick of the structural basis of its replicative invariance, without any doubt constitute the most important discoveries ever made in biology.
Prior to folding there is no biological activity. The similarity throughout all organisms of chemical machinery in both structure and function is set out. Enzymatic catalysis is believed to result from the inductive and polarizing action of certain chemical groupings of the specific receptor.
Monod reminds us that this reaction comes at the expense of chemical potential energy. As a consequence of protomer assembly each subunit is constrained by its neighbor.
Jaime Echarri, Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam” – PhilPapers
He continues to explain how this important discovery has made it the duty of scientists to share with and enhance other disciplines of thought such as philosophy. Activation through a precursor is defined as when an enzyme is activated by a precursor of its substrate and a particularly frequent case of this is activation h the enzyme by the substrate itself.
The author proposes that man should rise above his need for explanation and fear of solitude to accept the ethic of knowledge and frames this ethic as accepting both the animal and ideal in man.
And lastly the evolution of a teleonomic apparatus around the “replicative structures” would lead to the primitive cell. He then brings up and defends against a possible thermodynamic objection to reproductive invariance and points out the extreme efficiency of the teleonomic apparatus in accomplishing the preservation and reproduction of the structure.
Monod makes the point that behavior cannot be strictly separated as learned or innate since elements are acquired through experience according to an innate program and “the programs structure initiates and guides early learning, which will follow a certain pre-established pattern defined by the species’ genetic patrimony” Monod, In the last part of the chapter Monod criticizes “holists” who challenge the value to analytically complex systems such as living organisms and that complex systems cannot be reduced to the sum of their parts.
There is a brief review of DNA whose structure is a helix with translational and rotational symmetry and if artificially separated the complementary strands will spontaneously reform.
Various mutations such as substitutions, deletions, and inversions are listed.
Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam”
The formation of a sterospecific complex between protein and substrate and the catalytic activation of a reaction within the complex he stresses again that the reaction is oriented and specified by the structure of the complex. He lists the prime functions of the brain in mammals as control and coordination of neuromuscular activity, to set into action innate programs of action in response to stimuli, to integrate sensory inputs, to register, group, and associate significant events, and to represent and simulate.
The author now concentrates on what he views as one of the unique properties of higher level organisms, namely that of simulating experience subjectively so as to anticipate results and prepare action. Nature is explained with the same conscious and purposive manner as human activity. Monod explains that the rate of mRNA synthesis from the lactose operon determines the rate of the proteins synthesis. The author then spends some time developing the fact that the preceding sequence of amino acids had no bearing on what the next amino acid will be.
Monod hypothesizes that language was not merely the product but one of the driving forces for the evolution of our central nervous system. It starts off by stating that proteins are the molecular agents of teleonomic performance in living beings.
Monod says this suspension of natural selection is a peril to the species but that it will take quite a while for any serious effects and that there are more urgent dangers in modern society. Three stages which led to the emergence of the first organism are proposed.