(a) Principle of the reactions underlying DDRT-PCR analysis. (N) Any of the four nucleotides G, A, T, or C. V can be any nucleotide besides T. (B) Any nucleotide. Recently, a new approach has successfully been developed: Differential-Display Reverse Transcription-PCR (DDRT-PCR). This technique has been proven to. Establishment of infection and disease implies modifications in the genetic programmes of the cell systems that are involved and the differential expression of.

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To our knowledge, this is the first study that illustrates the bacterial production of serine protease for antagonistic function against another genus of bacteria. The cultivated endophytic bacterial isolates were transferred to new nutrient agar NA plates for purification. The bacterial production and secretion of serine protease for antimicrobial function is not yet documented. Application of differential display RT-PCR revealed that the isolate was able to up-regulate a gene with serine protease like protein.

The Bacillus subtilis genome sequence: The antagonistic factor was isolated from the bacterial culture medium and purified by thin layer chromatography technique, then analyzed by GC-MS analysis.

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CitePeer Related Articles http: The obtained sequences were compared with the sequences deposited in GenBank data base http: The obtained sequence revealed that the concerned gene is serine protease-like gene.

Earthworm- a potential source for stable and potent antimicrobial compounds- isolation and purification study. These results confirm the common concept regarding the ability of microorganism to develop new strategies prc resist more and more antibiotics, which invite the researchers to find new and effective antimicrobial agents.

This factor has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and specifically against Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. How does Europe PMC derive its citations network?

The production of antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes is a feature of many endophytic bacilli, including Bacillus cereus Pleban dcrt al. The products of endophytic bacterial isolate B. The number and extent of the genes affected is not totally known to others. The mixture was filtered using filter ddtt to remove the agar medium pieces and the ethanolic filtrate was ddt to GC—MS analysis as described previously Ezhilan and Neelamegam ; Moustafa et al.


This factor has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and specifically against Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. They are able to antagonize the pathogenic microbes through the competition for space and nutrients, production of antibiotics, production of hydrolytic enzymes and by inducing plant defense mechanisms Ryan et al. It is widely produced by Bacillus species and found tremendous applications in pharmaceuticals Bhunia et al.

However, only one of the sequenced genes was matched with genes deposited in GenBank. In vitro antifungal activities of inhibitors of phospholipases from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest. Open in a separate window. Bacillus subtilis BS as an antagonist of potato blackleg and soft rot bacteria.

This gene was up-regulated, excised from the gel and submitted for gene sequencing Fig. We would like to thank King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Biology Department for supporting this pcrr with all the required chemicals and equipments. In this study, Bacillus endophyticus strain SA isolated from the inner tissue of the stem of the cultivated plant Salvadora persica, Asir, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia produces an antagonistic factor.

It is well known that, the isolation of bacteria that are capable of invading the inner tissues of a certain plant is a critical process. After the incubation period, the S. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Braz J Infect Dis.

Decane, tetradecane, pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- and 2H-Chromenecarboxamide, 8-allyloxo- N -[2- 2-methyl-1H-indolyl ethyl]-found to be the minor components 4.

Antagonistic effect pcg endophytic isolate SA against S. Chitinolytic activity of an endophytic strain of Bacillus cereus. The obtained sequence fdrt compared with the sequences deposited in GenBank data base http: The antagonistic effect was only observed with S. Please review our privacy policy.


In-vivo expression technologies and differential display RT-PCR are providing new approaches to further examine a microbe’s response to experimental conditions which more closely resemble natural microbial associations and habitats. Unveiling of up-regulated or down-regulated genes Any external effect on the organism can affect its genetic behavior in a way of over or down expression of the ddrrt according to the kind of the stimulant.

Introduction Endophytes have been defined as microorganisms bacteria or fungi which for all or part of their life cycle reside within the inner parts of plant tissues, but cause no symptoms of disease Vega et al.

Differential display

Results and discussion Isolation and antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacteria It is well known that, the isolation of bacteria that are capable of invading the inner tissues of a certain plant is ;cr critical process. The extraction of the active metabolites produced by the endophytic isolate SA was done as follows: In vitro antifungal activity of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet latex against some pathogenic fungi.

Serine protease is an enzyme that produced by many organisms including bacteria. Verma and Verma reported the isolation and purification of antimicrobial peptide from celomic fluid of Indian ddtt Pheretima posthumous.

Differential display – Wikipedia

This claim is highly supported by the conditions which allow this enzyme not only to be produced but also to be over expressed. Phytochemical and pharmacological screening of Sterculiaceae species and isolation of antibacterial compounds. Serine protease is also known to be produced by bacteria for purposes oth er than bacterial-bacterial antagonistic effect, which has been confirmed by this study.

It has been reported that many endophytic ddrr provide beneficial effects to their hosts, like preventing xdrt development by synthesizing novel compounds and antifungal metabolites Khan and Doty