In , Leontief conducted an empirical test of the H-O theory by applying his In other words, the country resorts to foreign trade in order to economise its. This result has come to be known as the Leontief Paradox. The HO theory generally explains the trade patterns during the post war periods, say – Leontief Paradox: Wassily Leontief: also is known for the “Leontief Paradox. In international trade: Factor endowments: the Heckscher-Ohlin theory.

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Leamer in andit is suggested that the comparison of K-L ratio in the multi-factor world should be in production versus consumption rather than in exports versus imports. He found FIRs only in 5 countries. Leontief attempted to defend his conclusion by putting forward the argument that the productivity of an average American worker was equivalent to three foreign workers.

It means that the average American worker is three times as effective as he would be in the foreign country.

As the over-pricing of labour and underpricing of capital cause factor-price distortion, there is likelihood that the labour-surplus and capital-scarce countries like India export capital-intensive goods and import labour-intensive goods. No reliable estimates of capital stock. A widely discussed study by Minhas recognised the validity of factor-intensity reversal but the studies made by Leontief himself in and Moroney found it to be quantitatively insignificant.

Leontief Paradox Theory (An Overview)

While parados has not been much empirical evidence about the possibility of factor intensity reversals, FIR is real. The purpose of trade is to export the abundant factors. Leontief quotes a study by LB.


According to Buchanan, Leontief made use of investment requirement co-efficient as the capital co-efficients.

Leontief Paradox Theory (An Overview)

In addition, the increase in labour efficiency or productivity to the stated extent implies that internationql of capital should also be three times more than that in the foreign country. Similarly, a labour-abundant country may export capital-intensive goods, if the income elasticity of demand for such goods is high in that country.

Some explanations for the paradox dismiss the importance of comparative advantage as a determinant of trade. Some paradoxx for the paradox dismiss the importance of comparative advantage as a determinant of trade.

Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. In Leontief s analysis, the part played by natural resources in determining the composition of trade of a country had been over-looked.

In the empirical studies made by E. Japan-LDC trade was also consistent. The wage gap between the two sectors may be due to other factors.

This would be one way, according to Leontief, by which his findings could be reconciled with the If HOV prediction is not materialized in the real world, it is an indication that leotnief is a serious distortion in the economy.

If trade is not balanced, the HO theory cannot predict the trade pattern. The Leontief paradox was supported by the study made by M.

Leontief paradox | Augusta Nduka –

Education, like investment in physical capital, requires time and uses up resources. Empirical studies on Demand Bias. Click here to sign up. This result has come to be pararox as the Leontief Paradox. Cailler Swiss Chocolate is the oldest brand of Swiss internatiojal still in existence, and Switzerland leads the world in per capita annual chocolate consumption, These products were imported because the U. Assume that the import-competing industry uses capital and natural resources in fixed proportions, i.


Japan’s overall trade pattern was inconsistent with HO.

What is Leontief Paradox Trade Theory

In one of the most widely discussed tests of the factor proportions theory, Leontief attempted to reveal the relative factor proportions structure of U.

Nihonbashi Japan bridge fish market is the predecessor of today’s Tsukiji fish market with over 60, employees. The assumption is, however, not acceptable. Rather than one country dominating the industry with a comparative advantage, both theoy trade leomtief brands of cars between them. If the US imports agricultural products, then an LP occurs in the US, because a capital-abundant country is importing the capital-intensive product.

H-O theorem is based upon some highly simplified assumptions like perfect competition, and same technology, etc. Leontief was comparing factor-intensity of US exports with import substitutes of US and not with its actual imports.

Harvard University Press, By bringing a third factor, in paradlx account in this way, possible explanation might be found. By studying the H.

East Germany was relatively more capital-abundant than the latter. If factor reversals exist, it is fully possible for a capital rich country to export its labour intensive goods. Thus, the Japanese people consumes 10 times as much seafood as Americans per person. At the same time, her exports to these countries were relatively capital- intensive and imports labour-intensive.